Let’s start at the front – the shoe may have a toe cap (as does the Loake Tweed shoe here on the top left). In some shoes – like the Otterburn brogue shown here – the toecap is extended and made curvy to form a set of “wingtips“. This is common in brogues. The next section, covering the instep, is the vamp and it is generally the largest section (by area) of the shoe. In the Tweed Oxford shoe shown on the left, the vamp stops before handing over to the quarters – which are split to take the laces. In the Stamford Derby on the right, the vamp continues all the way up the instep to form the tongue, and the quarters wrap over it to form the looser, more stretchy, lacing-up section of the Derby shoe.. The Derby shoe may or may not have a toe-cap by the way. This Stamford doesn’t.
Talking of which … the Oxford has a separate tongue, underneath the vamp. In the Derby, as above – the tongue is simply the top end of the vamp. Finally, the shoe may or may not have a heel counter . In some, the quarters simply get stitched together at the back to form the heel. There is a a rather amusing image on the left of a black, semi-brogue Loake shoe just after it has been “closed” or sewn together, sans sole and welt. It might suit Mickey Mouse or a clown, but is clearly not suitable for you or me just yet!