Fit shank and cork (or other) filling in sole

The shank (metal stiffener)) and cork filling  in the space created by the welt

The shank (metal stiffener)) and cork filling in the space created by the welt.

This is how the gap left by the welt is filled. A metal or wooden shank stiffens the heel-sole section to stop the shoe from being floppy and then the remainder is filled in with something – in this case cork. Now we have a surface with no hills and valleys and the sole can be first glued on and then stitched on via the welt.

The sole is glued lightly to the upper prior to welt-sewing.

The sole is glued lightly to the upper prior to welt-sewing.

Light water-based glue to attach sole to upper

The sole is first glued lightly with water-soluble glue (so that it can be disassembled for repair at a later date) to keep it steady while the welt is sewn up. At present, the sole is deliberately too large – it will be trimmed to size soon …