This is the stage at which decorative punching (broguing) and cutting can be applied to the uppers, if that is part of the design, while they are still flat bits of leather. Gimping simply means cutting a sawtooth edge on leather. It is equivalent to taking a pair of pinking shears to material, in order to avoid the cut edge from being vulnerable to fraying. Pinking does not prevent the fraying but limits the length of the frayed thread and thus minimizes damage. In shoemaking, gimping is largely decorative, as shown on the close-up of a Loake Chester on the right. Nowadays it is often cut using a die on a machine, to ensure repeatable results – as shown on the left.